Candelax

Plot 10.01, Jalan PKNK 1/3,
Kawasan Perindustrian Sungai Petani,
08000 Sungai Petani,
Kedah, Malaysia.
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Chikungunya


Key facts
  •     Chikungunya is a viral disease transmitted to humans by infected mosquitoes. It causes fever and severe joint pain. Other symptoms include muscle pain, headache, nausea, fatigue and rash.
  •     The disease shares some clinical signs with dengue, and can be misdiagnosed in areas where dengue is common.
  •     There is no cure for the disease. Treatment is focused on relieving the symptoms.
  •     The proximity of mosquito breeding sites to human habitation is a significant risk factor for chikungunya.
  •     Since 2004, chikungunya fever has reached epidemic proportions, with considerable morbidity and suffering.
  •     The disease occurs in Africa, Asia and the Indian subcontinent. In recent decades mosquito vectors of chikungunya have spread to Europe and the Americas. In 2007, disease transmission was reported for the first time in a localized outbreak in north-eastern Italy.




Chikungunya is a mosquito-borne viral disease first described during an outbreak in southern Tanzania in 1952. It is an RNA virus that belongs to the alphavirus genus of the family Togaviridae. The name ‘chikungunya’ derives from a word in the Kimakonde language, meaning "to become contorted" and describes the stooped appearance of sufferers with joint pain (arthralgia).

Signs and symptoms
Chikungunya is characterized by an abrupt onset of fever frequently accompanied by joint pain. Other common signs and symptoms include muscle pain, headache, nausea, fatigue and rash. The joint pain is often very debilitating, but usually lasts for a few days or may be prolonged to weeks.
Most patients recover fully, but in some cases joint pain may persist for several months, or even years. Occasional cases of eye, neurological and heart complications have been reported, as well as gastrointestinal complaints. Serious complications are not common, but in older people, the disease can contribute to the cause of death. Often symptoms in infected individuals are mild and the infection may go unrecognized, or be misdiagnosed in areas where dengue occurs.

Transmission
Chikungunya has been identified in nearly 40 countries in Asia, Africa, Europe and also in the Americas.
       
The virus is transmitted from human to human by the bites of infected female mosquitoes. Most commonly, the mosquitoes involved are Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, two species which can also transmit other mosquito-borne viruses, including dengue. These mosquitoes can be found biting throughout daylight hours, though there may be peaks of activity in the early morning and late afternoon. Both species are found biting outdoors, but Ae. Aegypti will also readily feed indoors.
After the bite of an infected mosquito, onset of illness occurs usually between four and eight days but can range from two to 12 days.

Diagnosis
Several methods can be used for diagnosis. Serological tests, such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), may confirm the presence of IgM and IgG anti-chikungunya antibodies. IgM antibody levels are highest three to five weeks after the onset of illness and persist for about two months. Samples collected during the first week after the onset of symptoms should be tested by both serological and virological methods (RT-PCR).
The virus may be isolated from the blood during the first few days of infection. Various reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction (RT–PCR) methods are available but are of variable sensitivity. Some are suited to clinical diagnosis. RT–PCR products from clinical samples may also be used for genotyping of the virus, allowing comparisons with virus samples from various geographical sources.

Treatment
There is no specific antiviral drug treatment for Chikungunya. Treatment is directed primarily at relieving the symptoms, including the joint pain using anti-pyretics, optimal analgesics and fluids. There is no commercial chikungunya vaccine.

Disease outbreaks
Chikungunya occurs in Africa, Asia and the Indian subcontinent. Human infections in Africa have been at relatively low levels for a number of years, but in 1999-2000 there was a large outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and in 2007 there was an outbreak in Gabon.
Starting in February 2005, a major outbreak of chikungunya occurred in islands of the Indian Ocean. A large number of imported cases in Europe were associated with this outbreak, mostly in 2006 when the Indian Ocean epidemic was at its peak. A large outbreak of chikungunya in India occurred in 2006 and 2007. Several other countries in South-East Asia were also affected. Since 2005, India, Indonesia, Thailand, Maldives and Myanmar have reported over 1.9 million cases. In 2007 transmission was reported for the first time in Europe, in a localized outbreak in north-eastern Italy. There were 197 cases recorded during this outbreak and it confirmed that mosquito-borne outbreaks by Ae. Albopictus are plausible in Europe.

Prevention
Prevent mosquito bites. There is no vaccine or preventive drug.
  •     Use insect repellent Insecticandel, or Insectilotion on exposed skin and or clothing.   Always follow the directions on the package. Wear long sleeves and pants when weather permits.
  •     At home burn Insecticandel and have secure screens on windows and doors to keep mosquitoes out.
  •     If camping sleeping under the stars, use Insecticandel Premium which can last up to 20 hours, they are effective all night. When outside the tent bring the Insecticandel together.
  •     Travelers' advice to bring along Insecticandel to destinations where Mosquito-Borne Diseases might be a problem.

Mosquito-Proof with Insecticandel